Radiometric dating

Until recent years, scientists who believe in creation haven’t had the necessary resources to explore radiometric dating in detail. A 10 gram sample of U Now that has changed, and some important discoveries are being made. When granite rock hardens, it freezes radioactive elements in place. The most common radioactive element in granite is Uranium This element is locked in tiny zircons within the granite. As part of the decay process, helium is produced. While it stays within the zircon for a period of time, being a very small atom, helium escapes the zircon within a few thousand years. When creation scientists studied granite samples, they made interesting discoveries. The samples were from a mile below the earth, which, according to inflated evolutionary years, were 1.

SCIENCE vs. EVOLUTION

These three are generally found together in mixtures, and each one decays into several daughter products such as radium before becoming lead. This is very possible, and even likely. It is only an assumption that integral or adjacent lead could only be an end product. In addition, common lead lead , which has no radioactive parent, could easily be mixed into the sample and would seriously affect the dating of that sample.

Radiometric dating is a widely used technique that utilizes the half-life of radioactive elements as a means to estimate the age of various materials. Several approaches are used. Perhaps the most widely publicized has been radiocarbon dating.

What processes must you perform to acquire samples of gallium? Gallium is found in widely distributed ways in nature. We will be mining material, but not an ore of gallium because there are no ores with sufficiently high concentrations of this poor metal to attempt “direct” recovery. It is, instead, recovered as a byproduct or adjunct material by extraction from, say, bauxite, which is aluminum ore, or one of a number of other source materials. The ore will be crushed , the crude metal processed and concentrated so it can be recovered in a cycle which will vary depending on the source material.

Through refining we’ll increase the purity of the gallium, and we’ll repeat something that works well to achieve an end product as impurity free as required. What are the precautions that must be taken when collecting a water sample for analysis? A water sample can be taken for biological examination or for chemical examination. The procedures for getting a proper sample vary slightly. Samples for legal purposes carry an additional need for having a demonstrable chain of custody. Samples to be taken in sterile glass bottles with foil or teflon lines caps.

2 – General Engineering and Science

There are over a dozen different ways an element can decay so I will not describe them all. But most elements that decay will periodically eject some particle from its nucleus. One of the more commonly used methods of dating involves potassium It decays into rock that is It is too difficult to determine the age for the Ca so Ar is used, which is much more reliable. The potassium has a half-life of 1.

In theory, the U/ U technique can be useful in dating samples between about 10, and 2 million years Before Present (BP), or up to about eight times the half-life of U.

The half-lives have all been measured directly, either by using a radiation detector to count the number of atoms decaying in a given amount of time from a known amount of the parent material, or by measuring the ratio of daughter to parent atoms in a sample that originally consisted completely of parent atoms. Work on radiometric dating first started shortly after the turn of the century, but progress was relatively slow before the late forties.

For many of the dating techniques, we now have had fifty years over which to measure and remeasure the half-lives. Very precise counting of the decay events or the daughter atoms can be done, so that while the number of, for example, rhenium atoms decaying in 50 years is a very small fraction of the total, the resulting osmium atoms can be very precisely counted.

The uncertainties on the half-lives given in the table are all very small. There is no evidence of any of the half-lives changing over time, and such a thing is forbidden by the laws of physics.

ASK A BRAND

If it’s true that matter can neither be created nor destroyed Below are experiments which leave me with a sense of hope and understanding of what healing is and how it works I hope that it does the same for you. The Science of Peace and the Power of Prayer, Gregg Braden discussed how in the past we lost huge amounts of information from ancient spiritual traditions when the library at Alexandria burned we lost at least , documents , and that there may be information in those traditions which could help us understand some of the mysteries of science.

To this end he reported on three very interesting experiments.

A zircon crystal is found to contain 3 times as much Pb (“lead ”) as U (“Uranium ”) crystals form with small amounts of uranium in them but without any lead in them The half-life for the decay of U into Pb is million years.

This belief in long ages for the earth and the existence of life is derived largely from radiometric dating. These long time periods are computed by measuring the ratio of daughter to parent substance in a rock and inferring an age based on this ratio. This age is computed under the assumption that the parent substance say, uranium gradually decays to the daughter substance say, lead , so the higher the ratio of lead to uranium, the older the rock must be.

Of course, there are many problems with such dating methods, such as parent or daughter substances entering or leaving the rock, as well as daughter product being present at the beginning. Here I want to concentrate on another source of error, namely, processes that take place within magma chambers. To me it has been a real eye opener to see all the processes that are taking place and their potential influence on radiometric dating.

Radiometric dating is largely done on rock that has formed from solidified lava. Lava properly called magma before it erupts fills large underground chambers called magma chambers. Most people are not aware of the many processes that take place in lava before it erupts and as it solidifies, processes that can have a tremendous influence on daughter to parent ratios.

Such processes can cause the daughter product to be enriched relative to the parent, which would make the rock look older, or cause the parent to be enriched relative to the daughter, which would make the rock look younger. This calls the whole radiometric dating scheme into serious question. Geologists assert that older dates are found deeper down in the geologic column, which they take as evidence that radiometric dating is giving true ages, since it is apparent that rocks that are deeper must be older.

But even if it is true that older radiometric dates are found lower down in the geologic column, which is open to question, this can potentially be explained by processes occurring in magma chambers which cause the lava erupting earlier to appear older than the lava erupting later. Lava erupting earlier would come from the top of the magma chamber, and lava erupting later would come from lower down.

Noah’s Ark and the Flood

Careful studies by scientists showed that rocks had diverse origins. Some rock layers, containing clearly identifiable fossil remains of fish and other forms of aquatic animal and plant life, originally formed in the ocean. Other layers, consisting of sand grains winnowed clean by the pounding surf, obviously formed as beach deposits that marked the shorelines of ancient seas.

The most widely known form of radiometric dating is carbon is what archaeologists use to determine the age of human-made artifacts. But carbon dating won’t work on dinosaur bones. The half-life of carbon is only 5, years, so carbon dating is only effective on samples that are less than 50, years old.

Christian james bond said: The arguments for it is based on mistaken assumptions as I listed Click to expand Which both I and the link I gave about isochrons addressed: Different, inaccurate techniques can’t keep giving consistent values again and again and again. I don’t think you even realize what you are saying. What aspect of radiometric dating defies physics?

Nuclei decaying at a constant rate isn’t physics-defying, it is based on repeated observation. Everything about dating it is based on known ways that rocks behave. The quote-mining claim is a real stretch. Do you even know what quote-mining is? It is an alteration of someone else’s statement in order to make it look like they said something that they did not.

So who are evolutionary biologists quote-mining? The physicists who actually perform the dating? How can that be true when both evolutionary biologists and those physicists are saying the exact same thing:

Other Radiometric Dating Methods

Fundamentals of radiometric dating Radioactive decay Example of a radioactive decay chain from lead Pb to lead Pb. The final decay product, lead Pb , is stable and can no longer undergo spontaneous radioactive decay. All ordinary matter is made up of combinations of chemical elements , each with its own atomic number , indicating the number of protons in the atomic nucleus. Additionally, elements may exist in different isotopes , with each isotope of an element differing in the number of neutrons in the nucleus.

A particular isotope of a particular element is called a nuclide.

Dec 21,  · One of its great advantages is that any sample provides two clocks, one based on uranium’s decay to lead with a half-life of about million years, and one based on uranium’s decay to lead with a half-life of about billion years, providing a built-in crosscheck that allows accurate determination of the age of the sample.

Pb isotope intensity of zircon during O- ion bombardement is significantly enhanced if the sample surface is saturated with regard to oxygen. During zircon analysis, oxygen gas is leaked through a valve into the ims sample chamber. Energy Scan and Offset At the beginning of an analytical session or when analytical parameters such as primary beam intensity or spot size were changed, energy offsets for all measured ion species must be determined.

Centering the ion image in the field aperature Centering the secondary ion image in the center of the field aperture FA is necessary for each new analysis spot because primary beam paths and conditions of secondary ion extraction vary over the area of the sample surface,in particular when spot-to-spot movements over large distances few mm are required. The sequence is as follows: If ion image is weak or not visible, slightly adjust “Mass” thumbwheel or increase gain using “Channel Plate” thumbwheel.

This minimizes surficial Pb contamination from more slowly sputtered edges. This will start the mass calibration procedure. The mass range for each peak is set by two parameters: Once all peaks are centered, dM can be changed to 1. Examples are shown for Pb, Pb, and Pb. Note that the Pb signal is typically too small to perform magnet centering on Pb directly. Instead, a nearby reference mass 94Zr2O is used to center the magnet blue cursor whereas the B-filed during analysis is set for Pb red cursor.

How Old is that Rock?


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